and from HVACs
From water damage
Numbers of samples from houses positive
for the named mycotoxin
Adapted from: Polizzi V. et al., J. Environ. Monitoring. 2009, 11:1849 (full reference, click here)
Roridin E
Ochratoxin A
Aflatoxin B2
Chaetoglobosin A
Roquefortine C
Aflatoxin B1
From food, feed and
indoor plants
maize ear rot
Chaetoglobosin producing fungi are isolated in 49% of 794 water damaged buildings (Foggle, 2007). they are particularly frequent in air conditioning units (Strauss, 2011).
In cattle, sheep and goats (Snyman, 2011) ataxia, incoordination, muscle tremors, paresis can occur after ingestion of moldy corn.
Some animals survive ( Kellerman, 1985) with permanent locomotor disturbances. Autopsies demonstrate extensive lamina subcortical status spongiosus of cerebellum and cerebrum.
In cattle Odriozola (2005) found, at autopsy, moderate to severe degeneration of myelin shafts in the white matter of the cerebellum.
Cerebellar atrophy can me met with in humans. Links with mycotoxins have not yet been searched for with IRM. This case is of another origin, but illustrative.
Adding pure cultures of Cladosporium on maize to the food of vervet monkeys induced severe demyelination, and myopathies. Such unknown syndromes of unknown cause are prevalent among local african population ( Fincham, 1991)
Chaetoglobosins belong to the cytochalasin family, which have an affinity for Actin filaments. The basic structure derives from a C18 polyketide, linked to an amino-acid. Inthe case of Chaetoglobosins, the amino-acid is Tryptophan.
For Chaetoglobosin A, R = H; for C the O is linked by a double bond, for K C19 links to an OH and a semi-polar OH.
The main fungi producing Chaetoglobosins are :
- Cladosporium, in particular Stenocarpella (or Diplodia) macrospora and Stenocarpella (or Diplodia) maydis.These fungi can also produce diplodiatoxin whose neurotoxicity may associate to that of chaetoglobosins (Wicklow, 2011).
- Calonectria morganii (especially on plants)
- Chaetonium globosum.