Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as VOMITOXIN, one of the most abundant trichothecenes found in cereals, beer, (Sobrova) induces important neurological symptoms (Girardet), digestive effects (Maresca), and a cytokine invasion syndrome. Carcinogenicity is possible.
Within minutes DON reaches blood, brain, liver, kidneys
In the gut DON decreases
key tight junction protein
hence increased paracellular permeability
NTS: G.I. reflexes, BLOATING,
scp superior cerebellar peduncle
dmn X dorsal motor nucleus of vagus
NTS Nucleus Tractus Solitarius
- Girardet C. et al, Central inflammation and sickness like behavior; Toxicol Sci. Epub ahead of print, Aug 26 2011
- Sobrova P. et al, Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity. Interdisc. Toxicol. 2010, 3, 94
- Vandenbroucke V.et al, The mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol potentiates intestinal inflammation by Salmonella Typhimurium in porcine intestinal loops; PLoS ONE, Aug 2011, 6 (8) e23871
- Van De Walle et al, Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity though inhibition of protein synthesis; Tox and Appli pharmacol 2010, 245: 291
- Maresca M. et al, Some food-associated mycotoxins as potential risk factors in humans predisposed to chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases; Toxicon 2010, 56;282
- Takahasi A. et al, Hypothalamic cholinergic regulation of body temperature and water intake in rats. Auton. Neurosci. 2001, 94; 74
activation of underlying immune cells, and also PERENNIAL increase of intestinal permeability, facilitates reinfestation by low doses of mycotoxins, allergens, germs.
3/ Digestive effects in addition to nausea and bloating, are part of the "neurovegetative syndrome"
4/ Carcinogenicity: DON can potentiate carcinogenicity (lung adenocarcinomas) of sterigmatocystine in mice (Huang XH: z.z.l.z. Zhi, 2004;12: 705)
5/ Source: DON is mainly produced by Fusarium, especially graminearum and culmorum