In grazing fields, horses, cattle, sheep, are fond of Red Clovers, Oxytropis & Astragalus (Locoweeds).
Rhizoctonia & Undifilum are fungi that infect these plants and secrete Swainsonine
Endophyte fungi: RHIZOCTONIA, UNDIFILUM*
Swainsonine is an inhibitor of alpha mannosidase, the lysosomal enzyme that removes mannose from oligosaccharides. Blocking the enzyme,leads to accumulation of oligosaccharides in lysosomes, especially in the brain and cerebellum: hence ATAXIA and MENTAL DISORDERS.
This serious neurological condition occurring in livestock is very well known, and frequently met with in the agricultural and veterinary world. This condition resembles that observed in hereditary mannosidosis in cattle and humans (the latter can present as Ataxia, Malm, 2008).
- Broquist et al. (1984, Vanderbilt Univ.), point out : "The extent to which swainsonine mycotoxicosis poses threats to humans, were this alkaloid to enter the human food chain, deserves serious consideration".
- another threat is due to the fact that many herbal remedies contain elements of the three guilty plants.
* Cook, 2012; Oldrup, 2010
Animals develop odd gait, stiffness, clumsiness, discoordination
Similarity with lysosomal disease