Volcano eruption health hazards
Iceland, 1783 Laki fissure
lasted 8 months, poisonous hydrofluoric acid/SO2, killed 25% of population, lasted 8 months. Total SO2 emission was equivalent to 3 times total annual European output.
Paris was hit, and Le Havre,  and Chartres.
during the XXth century 80 000 to 100 000 deaths due to volcano eruptions
                    Acid rain: irritant to skin & eyes

Ash and tephra (solid fragments falling from eruption clouds): asthma bouts, bronchitis, pneumoconiosis.
Mesothelioma has been described.
Ash contains cristalline silica (cristobalite, tridymite, minor quartz).
In August 2000, after the Miyake (Japan) volcano eruption, a case of pneumoconiosis led to lung biopsy, which showed bronchiolitis around crystals ( identified as Silicium) in the alveolar macrophages. Particles can be PM4 and PM2.5.
Tephra can travel sometimes associated with hot gas, at 350 Km/h, constituting a pyroclastic current (Mont Pelée, 1902, 25 000 deaths within minutes) ; this is what hapened for Vesuvius AD 79..

Gases which can lead to respiratory and neurological effects: SO2, sulfuric acid and/or sulphate aerosols (Hawaï Kilauea), HCl, HF, CO2, H2S, radon. CO2, which usually is hardly toxic, can reach crazy levels : a quarter of a million tons in Cameroun 1986 Lake Nyos resulted in 2000 deaths by suffocation.

Laze: HCl gas clouds if lava hits the sea: ocular & respiratory risk
map taken from the BBC website, concerning the eruption of Ap)ril 15, 2010
Historical facts:
Polluting agents, and their consequences:
Latest news, Paris,  just past midnight, the 16th of April is starting
Health Protection Scotland said those with existing respiratory conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma should ensure they have any inhalers or other medications with them.

It is recommended that people who live in regions subject to ash fall wear dust masks because of toxic chemicals that might have been emitted into the atmosphere through the current volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull glacier.

Adam Bourne, Stromness in the Orkney Islands, says:
Just been out with some friends, and there is definitely a bitter, sulphurous taste in the air. Not a nice taste to have in your mouth. Looks like it's moved down from Shetland.

1846 Sarah Keith-Lucas from the BBC's weather centre says reports are coming in of some of the ash beginning to reach the ground. She says people in the Shetland Isles are reporting a bitter taste in their mouths and a thin film of ash could appear elsewhere.













ASH IS falling. Sulphourous taste in the air, MASKS to be worn
Fluoride reported from the gas emissions. This was also the case for the devastating Laki fissure, Iceland, 1783. Laki also gave out a sulphorous odor..
Symptoms (from Wikipedia) of fluoride poisoning include abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysphagia, hypersalivation, mucosal injury, nausea, vomiting. Electrolyte abnormalities including hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, and hypomagnesemia may occur. Neurological symptoms include headache, muscle weakness, hyperactive reflexes, muscular spasms, paresthesia seizures, tetanic contractions, and tremors. In severe cases, multi organ failure will occur. Death typically results from cardiac arrest, shock, widening of QRS, and various arrhythmias occur.
SO2 poisoning :
DESTRUCTION OF PROTECTIVE CILIATED EPITHELIUM, & INVASION OF LUNG BY BACTERIA ARE CONQUENCES OF ACUTE SULFUR DIOXIDE POISONING.
[Hamilton, A., and H. L. Hardy. Industrial Toxicology. 3rd ed. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1974. 210]**PEER REVIEWED**

INHALATION PRODUCES ALL GRADES OF RESPIRATORY TRACT IRRITATION SOMETIMES WITH PULMONARY EDEMA. VAPOR CONCN PROBABLY DETERMINES MODE OF DEATH: EG, SUFFOCATION FROM REFLEX RESP ARREST (VERY HIGH CONCN), PULMONARY EDEMA (MODERATE CONCN), OR SYSTEMIC ACIDOSIS (LOW CONCN). THERE IS SOME INDICATION OF SIGNIFICANT VARIATION IN INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. II-96]**PEER REVIEWED**

WITH ACUTE EXPOSURE, 5 PPM CAUSES DRYNESS OF NOSE & THROAT AND A MEASUREABLE INCR IN RESISTANCE TO BRONCHIAL AIR FLOW; 6 TO 8 PPM CAUSES A DECR IN TIDAL RESP VOLUME. SNEEZING, COUGH & EYE IRRITATION OCCUR AT 10 PPM; 20 PPM CAUSED BRONCHOSPASM; 50 PPM CAUSES EXTREME DISCOMFORT BUT NO INJURY IN LESS THAN A 30-MIN EXPOSURE ... 1000 PPM CAUSES DEATH IN FROM 10 MIN TO SEVERAL HR BY RESP DEPRESSION.
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 198]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPOSURE TO HIGH CONCN CAUSE REFLEX CLOSURE OF GLOTTIS FOR SEVERAL MINUTES. ... PERSONS SUBJECT TO ASTHMATIC ATTACKS WILL EXPERIENCE ASTHMATIC PAROXYSM WHICH MAY PERSIST FOR SEVERAL DAYS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE.
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 198]**PEER REVIEWED**

IN THE MORE ADVANCED STAGES, ... DILATION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN CERTAIN REGIONS. ULCERATION OF NASAL SEPTUM, WHICH BLEEDS READILY, MAY ... BE OBSERVED.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 2122]**PEER REVIEWED**

THERE MAY ALSO BE THORACIC PAIN & STRICTION, DYSPNEA, LACRIMATION ... BURNING SENSATION & PAIN IN ESOPHAGUS & STOMACH, NAUSEA & (ALTHOUGH RARELY) VOMITING.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971. 1370]**PEER REVIEWED**
Bill Burton, associate director of the U.S. Geological Survey’s volcano hazards program, said the current eruption under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier bore similarities to the last eruption there, in 1821. “We seem to be reprising that episode again,” he said.

The volcanic plume contains a lot of sulfur, he said, “that can become an aerosol up there that hangs around a long time reflecting sunlight.”
Dr. Burton said that when the eruption shifted to the summit, there were indications that the silica content of the ash increased. “Theoretically, the more silica-rich the ash, the more risky or greater threat there is,” he said.

April 16, 2010; 7.44 am Paris time
Scotland, according to NHS National Services Scotland.
“If people are outside and notice symptoms such as itchy or irritated eyes, runny nose, sore throat or dry cough, or if they notice a dusty haze in the air or can smell sulphur, rotten eggs, or a strong acidic smell, they may wish to return indoors.”
Silicium Poisoning: see above Ash contains cristalline silica (cristobalite, tridymite, minor quartz). In August 2000, after the Miyake (Japan) volcano eruption, a case of pneumoconiosis led to lung biopsy, which showed bronchiolitis around crystals ( identified as Silicium) in the alveolar macrophages
April 17, 02.05 am, Paris time
- at 11 am today, French Prime Minister François Fillon to have a meeting with his concerned ministers
Climate consequences:


ctvcalgary.ca (Fri Apr. 16 2010 16:22:52)
Volcanic eruptions can have an effect on the world climate, which means scientists around the world are keeping a close eye on the volcano in Iceland.
In 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines and world temperatures dropped by half-a-degree Celsius.
In the 1800's, when Krakotowa erupted in Indonesia the cooling effect was so severe it caused crop failures around the world.
"That's to do with sulphur gas that comes along with ash and that sulphur gas gets into the stratosphere and there it turns into sulphuric acid and turns into tiny particles," says David Keith, a climate scientist at the U of C. 

This seems most relevant, as most people trapped under the cloud have smelt a very strong stink of rotten eggs; SO2 and SH2.
A very weird photograph was taken yesterday: take a look, click
from NASA
Expected path of ashes, Monday April 19
April 18:
German airline Air Berlin said it had also carried out test flights and expressed irritation at the shutdown of European air space.

“We are amazed that the results of the test flights done by Lufthansa and Air Berlin have not had any bearing on the decision-making of the air safety authorities,” Chief Executive Joachim Hunold said.

“The closure of the air space happened purely because of the data of a computer simulation at the Vulcanic Ash Advisory Center in London,” he told the mass circulation Bild am Sonntag paper.”
The simple questions are:
- for each of the areas in Europe, what are the
concentrations of:
- PM10
- PM2.5
- Other PMs
- Silica
- SH2
- HF
- HCl
Data is important to access at various altitudes:
- ground level is very easy
- troposphere
- stratosphere




This can be measured by :
- satellites (up to around 50 Km)
- balloons, up to about 38 Km, and below
- SO2 imaging cameras

They might be right, they might be wrong.
April 19, 2010
We now have (thanks to the data transmitted by F.B.) important information
Important information on
- the lava (% in weight), it is increasingly rich in SiO2, around 58% on April 15th;
- the gases(between April 1st and 2nd) with
SO2 gas flux around 3000 tonnes per day

HealthValue