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HealthValue
Halting the cell cycle, thanks to the watchdogs
Cells with broken DNA MUST NOT go into mitosis.
To avoid this a system of watchdogs exists.
DNA breaks are sensed, and activate kinases :
- ATM (ataxia-telangiectasis mutation)
- ATR (AT rad 3 related).
ATR activates Check Point Kinase 1 (chk1), that inhibits the G2/M checkpoint constituted by Cyclin
dependent kinase 1 (cdk1) and cyclin B.
ATM activates Check Point Kinase 2 (chk2), that
inhibits the G1/S checkpoint constituted by Cyclin
dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) and cyclin E. chk2 also activates p53, then p21, thus inhibiting Cyclin dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D, which leads to inhibition of G2.
These pathways are only part of the picture, and are not completely separate, thanks to "cross-talk".
BRCA1 (absent in 5% of hereditary breast and ovary cancers, decreased in 30% of sporadic) is a key element of the system.

- DNA damage control
- Halting the cell cycle
- Cell cycle inhibitors
- DNA damage repair (DDR)
- DDR pathways
- DDR pathways inhibitors
MONOCLONALS
abatacept
abciximab
adalimumab
alefacept
alemtuzumab
anti KDR
atacicept
basiliximab
belatacept
belimumab
bevacizumab
BR3-Fc
CDP 791
certolizumab
cetuximab
dacluzimab
denosumab
eculizumab
efalizumab
etanercept
IMC 1121
infliximab
ipilimumab
lumiliximab
Mab 806
mapatumumab
matuzumab
natalizumab
nimotuzumab
ocrelizumab
ofatumumab
omalizumab
palivizumab
panitumumab
pertuzumab
ranibizumab
rituximab
ticilimumab
trastuzumab
VEGF Trap
zalutumumab
ABOUT MONOCLONALS
what is a monoclonal
chains & fragments
therapeutic fields
what are CDs
types of monoclonals
fusion proteins
cells to build monoclonals
making monoclonals
IgG1/IgG2 differences
F(ab) fragments
Fc fragment
Fc structure
Fc e receptors
BioTherapies
antisense
cell therapy
exon skipping
gene therapy
hemopoietic prog.
monoclonals
protein kinases
recombinant prot.
stem cells
DISEASES
B lymphocyte hyperactivity
bird flu
cancer
diabetes
human growth hormone diseases
lysosomal diseases
mitochondrial diseases
multiple sclerosis
myelodysplastic sd
myopathies
osteoporosis
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
psoriasis
rheumatoid arthritis
Cells/organelles
B lymphocytes
cell cycle
cells
chromosomes
DNA repair
exons
hemopoietic prog.
introns
lysosomes
mb. receptors
membrane CDs
mitochondria
proteasomes
stem cells
Pathways
Adams
AKT
amino acids
APRIL
BLys
BRCA
complement
cancer pathways
cdk
c-Met
DPP IV
EGF
EGFRvIII
GPCR
G proteins
HGF
ILGF
kinome
Kras
mannose P
MET
mTOR
NFKB
nucleotides
protein kinases
proteins
Ras
RET
sheddases
sunitinib/sorafenib
TACI
TNF
VEGF
Wnt