Abbreviations (often allude to where the gene was discovered : fruit fly, rat) :
DPP-IV dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, EGFR epithelial growth factor receptor, Hedgehog because
when the fruit fly bears this mutation its larvae are covered with spines , IGFR insulin like growth
factor receptor, Notch mutation inducing a notch in the wings of the fruit fly, RAS rat sarcoma,
RET rearranged during transfection, VEGFR vascular endothelial growth factor receptor,
Wnt wingless mutation of the fruit fly
Membrane receptors are the starting points of a maze of synergistic or antagonistic interwoven enzymatic cascades, which finally reach the intranuclear transcription control systems, themselves another maze, and from where carcinogenesis may rise.