PALMITIC ACID
SERINE
amino acid

+
fatty acid

Dihydrosphingosine (DHSph, sphinganine)
Fumonisin B1 inhibits ceramide synthases, as well as induces increase in sphingosine kinases and palmityl transferase, elevating levels of DHSph, DHS1P.
Hepatocyte TNFa, IFNg, IL12 are also increased (Suzuki).
FUMONISINS: mode of action
SPHINGOMYELIN is found in cell membranes, and in the myelin sheath around axons
Transmission electron micrograph of a myelinated axon. Generated at the Electron Microscopy Facility at Trinity College, Hartford, CT
Dihydrosphingosine-1P (DHS1P)
phosphocholine
amide-linked fatty acid
Dihydroceramides
introduction of 4-5 double bond
CERAMIDES
(N-acyl sphingosines)
glycosyl ceramides
deacylation
Sphingosine (Sph)
Spingosine -1 phosphate (S1P)
ceramide
synthases
X
Fumonisin B1 inhibits ceramide synthases
sphingosine kinase 
sphingosine kinase
sphingomyelins
S1P1r
S1P2r
S1P3r
S1P4r
S1P5r
palmityl transferase
v.
v.
v.
v.
v.
Consequences for :
- LUNG and HEART
- NERVOUS SYSTEM
- CANCER
Fumonisin
intoxication induces high sphinganine/sphingosine serum ratio in humans
The 5 S1P receptors
Pharmacological inhibitors of ceramide-synthases:
- miglustat
- eliglustat
- sphingolimod
Drugs with fumonisin similarities: